FreePDK45:Manual

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The following is pasted from the $PDK_DIR/ncsu_basekit/doc/FreePDK45_Manual.txt file, included in the distribution:

==================================================================
Process: Generic 45 nm
Contents: FreePDK45 Manual
File: FreePDK45_Manual.txt
Created: June 4, 2007
==================================================================

Update History
   Date        who                   Details
------------------------------------------------------------------
2007-6-4       mdbucher    First version of manual, including
               & wdavis    notes on design rules and P-Cells.
2007-9-19      wdavis      Updated for version 1.1 of the kit.
2008-3-10      wdavis      Updated for version 1.2 of kit,
                           added section on HSPICE models
2011-4-7       wdavis      Updated for version 1.4 of kit.
               & hdemirc

------------------------------------------------------------------

***** Please send all questions and comments to eda_help@ncsu.edu! *****

Contents:

I.     Introduction
II.    Setup Files
III.   Design Rule Notes
IV.    LVS & PEX Notes
V.     P-Cells
VI.    HSPICE Models


--------------------------------------------------------------------------
I.     Introduction
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

This kit contains the technology library NCSU_TechLib_FreePDK45.  It
supplies techfiles, display resources, design rules and scripts to
permit layout design and rule checking for a generic 45 nanometer
process.  The technology information contained in this kit has been
compiled from published papers, predictive technology models and rule
scaling.  This information may be freely used, modified, and
distributed under the open-source Apache License (see the file
APACHE-LICENSE-2.0.txt in the root install directory for the complete
text).  Previous versions of this kit used the Gnu Public License
(GPL), but this was discontinued, because the user community felt that
GPL was too restrictive.

This technology is intended to work with the 45nm BSIM4 Predictive
Technology Model from Arizona State University
(http://www.eas.asu.edu/~ptm).  See the HSPICE Models section of this
file for details about these models.  Schematic creation and HSPICE
simulation for these models is supported through Cadence Virtuoso
and the Cadence Analog Design Environment (ADE), when using the
NCSU_Devices_FreePDK45 library, also distributed with this kit.

This manual is intended as an introduction to the kit, but it is by no
means comprehensive.  Please see the FreePDK Wiki for complete
documentation:

http://www.eda.ncsu.edu/wiki/FreePDK

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
II.    Setup Files
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

To use the kit, copy the following files from the cdssetup directory
to the directory where you start Virtuoso:

cdsinit             - Should be named .cdsinit
cds.lib             - Cadence Library Manager library list
lib.defs            - Open Access library list
.runset.calibre.drc - Calibre DRC runset file, with the rules path included.
.runset.calibre.lvs - Calibre LVS runset file, with the rules path included.
.runset.calibre.pex - Calibre xRC runset file, with the rules path included.
.runset.calibre.lfd - Calibre LFD runset file, with the rules path included.
                      (requires installation of LithoSim kit v1.2)

Sourcing the script setup.csh (in the cdssetup directory) will copy these 
files into the current directory if they do not exist and set the necessary
environment variables to ensure that they are used by Calibre Interactive.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
III.   Design Rule Notes
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

The design-rules currently support layers up to and including metal 10.
See the "Layers" page on the FreePDK Wiki for a complete list of
layers.  These design rules are not comprehensive, but represent our
current state of understanding about how to design generic logic in
45nm for high yield.  Some design rules (such as antenna rules) are
still under development.

Design rule checking is currently supported with Calibre.  The drc rules
can be found in techfile/calibre/calibreDRC.rul.  See "Layout Tutorial #1"
on the NCSU EDA Wiki Tutorials page for an introduction on running 
Calibre DRC from Virtuoso.  There are currently no plans to support 
Diva for DRC.

See the "Design Rules" pages on the FreePDK Wiki for illustrations of 
all design rules, and the "Design Rule Development" page for notes on
how each rule was created.  Please also see the file 
FreePDK45_Release_Notes.txt for notes on specific design rule changes 
in this release.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
IV.    LVS & PEX Notes
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Layout vs. Schematic (LVS) Checks and Parasitic Extraction (PEX) are
supported for all metal layers and devices in the
NCSU_Devices_FreePDK45 library.  This functionality is supported with
Calibre.  The rules can be found in the calibreLVS.rul and
calibrexRC.rul files in the $PDK_DIR/ncsu_basekit/techfile/calibre
directory.  See "Layout Tutorial #2" on the NCSU EDA Wiki Tutorials
page for an introduction on running Calibre LVS and PEX from Virtuoso.

Currently, there is no variation information in the PEX rules.  All
extracted parasitics assume the widths and spaces as drawn, with
thicknesses, resistances, and permittivities given on the "Metal
Layers" page on the FreePDK Wiki.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
V.     P-Cells
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Two P-Cells are available in the NCSU_TechLib_FreePDK45 library,
named "nmos" and "pmos" with the extensions "_vtl", "_vtg", "_vth" and
"_thkox", indicating the four different types of supported devices.  
These P-Cells will generate design-rule correct layouts for NMOS and PMOS 
transistors.

These P-Cells are implemented with the CiraNova PyCell v4.2.5 plugin
for Virtuoso.  This plugin is available for free download from
http://www.ciranova.com.  It is known to be compatible with
Cadence Virtuoso 6.1.4 (OpenAccess 22.04.064).

In order to work properly, the PyCell environment setup must be
included in the Virtuoso environment setup.  See the file
cdssetup/icoa_setup.csh for an example setup script (not including the
required setup for this kit).  In addition, ensure that files
cnDloPcell.plg and cnPcellProxy.plg have been copied from the CiraNova
quickstart directory to the oa/data/plugins directory (which should be
located at the same level as the main Virtuoso installation
directory).  After performing these tasks, the PyCells should behave
like standard SKILL P-Cells.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
VI.   HSPICE Models
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

These models were generated using the 45nm Nano-CMOS Predictive
Technology Model (PTM).  These models can be obtained directly from
http://www.eas.asu.edu/~ptm.  Many thanks to Kevin Cao at Arizona
State University for maintaining these models!  These models were 
tuned according to the Bulk-Si, poly-gate technology from Fujitsu
referenced below.  The performance of this technology is roughly
average among all published technologies investigated.

T. Miyashita, et al., "High Performance Low Power Bulk Logic Platform
Utilizing FET Specific Multiple-Stressors with Highly Enhanced Strain and
Full-Porous Low-k Interconnects for 45-nm CMOS Technology," IEDM, pp.
251-2544, 2007.

Four types of devices are supported, corresponding the low, general,
and high threshold voltage devices (VTL, VTG, and VTH).  These devices
were intented to roughly follow the high-performance, low operating
power, and low standby-power technologies respectively for the 2007
node in the 2005 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors
(ITRS), available at http://www.itrs.net.  There is also a thick-oxide
device (THKOX) for high-voltage off-chip IO.

Simulation of these models with a supply voltage of 1.0V yields the
following currents:

Nominal        VTL     VTG      VTH    |   VTL      VTG        VTH
                                       |
Ion   (uA/um) 1246   975.5      570    |  -801   -650.3     -379.2
Ioff  (nA/um)  100      10      0.2    |  -100      -10       -0.2
Igate (A/cm2) 15.3     6.2      0.8    | -14.4     -8.0       -0.6
                                       |
FF Corner      VTL     VTG      VTH    |   VTL      VTG        VTH
                                       |
Ion   (uA/um) 1325    1040      618    |  -854     -699       -408
Ioff  (nA/um)  229    21.8     0.38    |-205.4    -23.6      -0.39
Igate (A/cm2)   32    13.1      1.5    | -28.9    -15.9       -1.1
                                       |
SS Corner      VTL     VTG      VTH    |   VTL      VTG        VTH
                                       |
Ion   (uA/um) 1161     905      521    |  -750     -604       -351
Ioff  (nA/um) 43.1     4.6      0.1    |   -43     -4.4       -0.1
Igate (A/cm2)  6.4     3.3      0.4    |  -7.1     -4.0       -0.3



***** Please send all questions and comments to eda_help@ncsu.edu! *****